The most common etiology of spinal fractures is osteoporosis. Where the bones are weak secondary to decreased calcium levels. Many times the fracture occurs without any history of trauma and sometime it passes by unnoticed to the patient and discovered accidentally. For painful fractures the treatment depends on the severity of the pain.
Usually medications and Physical Therapy are sufficient for most patients. If that fails or the pain is sufficiently interfering with the patients quality of life, then techniques such as Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty where cement is injected into the vertebral body using a needle are indicated and are very effective in controlling the pain.